عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Error theory in modern ethics is known by the name of John Mackie. According to him, all moral claims are false. Since 1970s, there has been a great deal of research to explain human ethics by biological evolutionary theory. Michael Ruse uses evolutionary explanation of ethics to found his version of ethical error theory on. According to him, ethics is objectified by natural selection. But it is in fact an illusion to increase individuals' inclusive fitness. Based on a specified definition of ethics and of natural selection, Richard Joyce argues that all ethical discourse that predicated ethical ought to actions and other things is not true. But then, he broadens his definition of ethics and uses much more empirical evidence to argue that all moral beliefs have to be suspended. I argue against such error theories mostly based on a kind of virtue ethics.